Effects of Divorce

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The society might have basically deleted the stigma that had accompanied the issue of divorce in the past but essentially it can never ignore the massive impact of divorce. Divorce is basically hurting the society and essentially devastating the lives of the children (Cathi, 2010).The effects of divorce are actually obvious in educational attainments, emotional and physical health, job stability, crime and drug use (Patrick &Robert, 2000). Effects of divorce have since continued up to adulthood and will basically affect even the next generation (Patrick, 1999). Divorce generally portrays more diverse effects than good. The following story is hence of a divorced Nigerian family who left their home to come to Australia; the effects of divorce and the social and cultural factors on their health.

Case study

The family came from Nigeria and had been in Australia for roughly three years. Clara got divorced after seven eight years of abuse. Few months after the wedding, he changed drastically and was no longer nice to her. He grew critical and sad most of the time and threw things at her, yelled and insulted her. There was a time that the younger daughter was molested by the husband’s daughter and the husband chose not to undertake any legal action. During this time they already had four children and she had always wanted to leave the man in vain. Divorce changed her dramatically and had adverse effects on the children. It had reached a point where the man was entertaining other women in the presence of the children.

The divorce was so crappy that it cost her even her profession as she was making a living through telling people how they ought to run their entire lives since she was a psychologist. The reason she had to go to Australia as an illegal alien was to make a living in a place where she was less known and forget all the past scandals.

Divorce has adverse effects on people’s health as it leads to some cardiovascular catastrophe (Gary, 2006). People’s who are over 40 years are more subjected to cardiovascular risks and psychological problems. Both women and men also do suffer mental health problems for prolonged periods. After any cancer diagnosis, married people might recover but the divorced are less likely to actually recover because of the emotional trauma (Amy, 2001). Children from divorced families do have problems adjusting in the new arrangements of the family.

According to the article on Australian government, Australia is actually a culturally diverse society that is usually tolerant and is made of people who come from diverse backgrounds.  Children do live in divergent forms and the common pattern is that they do live mostly with the mother and have less contact with the father. Children are hence forced to make some new alterations that they were not ready for and most of the children do suffer a lot after divorce and end up feeling confused (David et al, 2010).

Children who experience divorce in their families does score lower as far as education, social development, self concept, emotional well being and physical health is concerned (David et al, 2010).

Divorced families who are poor face financial problems and as they move to other new places in search for healthier pastures do face problems to do with cultural shock. They have first to adjust to the new places, learn their language, culture and other social factors to enable them fit in. They then have to look for a job in a place they know no one and make sure they are taking care of the children who are psychologically affected.

These parents hardly have enough time for all this and when they get a job that is time consuming, they never have time for their children.

Brofenbrenner’s model and the case study

Children adjust according to the mesosystem layer and develop their behavioural characteristics. They connect with what is around them for example, the neighbours, teachers, parents and the church. In this case study, the first born connected with the neighbours and peers who were also drug addicts as well as with the parent who was too stressed and hence withdrew from them. The workplace schedule of Clara acted as the exosystem layer where the children ended up not interacting and functioning directly. The children felt the negative force of the workplace and their communication breakdown with their mother. The macro system did not offer concrete answer to the growing problems as it never gave the resources that were needed to help Clara be a responsible parent and raise the children as expected. This hence affected Clara’s perspective and thus led to stress because of their inability to be responsible as she watched her children suffer in a new environment.

As the children grow older they might be in a position to reform as they will understand the current problem with much ease. This is in the chronosystem level where they basically react differently to some of the environmental changes and be in a position to determine on how the changes will actually have influence on them. Bronfenbrenner’s ecology theory does state that as children develop, interactions in the environment become harder thus the environment in which the children are brought up in play a major role in enhancing development. For parents to be in a position to help their children, they must realize that they are deficient thus need help. When relationships in immediate Micro-systems end up breaking down, children are usually deprived and have no any tools to actually explore the environment.

They hence start looking for affirmation in all the wrong places. Parents and teachers need to provide long term and stable relationships to the children. Divorce is never a tremendous thing. Couples at one point or another do always get in war tugs over children, assets and property. In cases where children grow to be rebellious is because others who are in the surrounding have already made them to be like that (Bill, 1996). Clara did not see the need to go through that and though it would take lot of time thus she had to move which wasn’t easy. The ecological system theory does look at the children’s development in relationship systems that do form their environment (John, 2001).

The Microsystems layer which is usually close to children and does encompass relationships that children have with their surroundings for example school, family, neighbourhood and others. Clara’s children became aloof and always complained of the new environment. They had no friends thus were lonely most of the time. What they had already learnt in school, they had difficulties remembering it.  The older child became more arrogant and started using drugs as he got some bad influence from the neighbourhood. Bi- directional influences occurred because the mother also got completely carried away by the whole scenario that it led to depression and most of the time she was in and out of the hospital. She could not even afford private hospitals and she could wait for long cues to get medication. The children could no longer communicate effectively with the mother as she worked for long hours and the children always looked distracted.

They were not accessed to quality health care due to the fact that they were new in the place and were too embarrassed by their current problems to seek for help. The main barriers to quality health care are lack of information, access problems and language barrier (Abouzahr & Vlassoff, 1996). Basically in the past years and what has led to breakdown of most marriages is that family unit has basically been outmoded and has declined as far as stability and the loss of the authority of the parents are concerned (Aspin, 1997).


Role of the health profession

Divorce is not easy and health practitioners need to be consulted during this period. I will help them to remain focused, work on the recent problem, counsel the children to be able to move on with life, help them deal with emotional and psychological challenges that do come up after divorce. As a health professional I would assist the family to first accept reality and learn how to raise her self esteem. The children ought to go for counselling services where they will be subjected to positive means of handling their life.  Clara’s children need to be counselled on the normative divorce process and let them know that despite everything, they are not alone and offer living examples of families who are divorced and do live a healthy life.

Other resources I may need

Other resources that I may need are finance due to the fact that this is a poor family and before you get into therapy, they need to be catered for in form of food supply and finance to cater for the needs of the children. As a health professional I ought to be aware of the sociological model  that do place more emphasis on sociological, environmental and social causes of an illness rather than just focusing on the aspect of biology. There is a need to focus on the beliefs, values and cultural affiliations of the patients and not just focus on medicine and counseling.

 Community Resources

Most of the states require the parents to fill in the parent educational program to increase the understanding of the issues that the children might go through after divorce. This is one of the resources that is present in my community and that might be of help to Clara. The educational program teaches the parents on how to manage their conflicts, how to avoid mistreating the children and how to maintain the positive relationships with all the children.

Clara needs to consult ‘Beyond blue’ which is a national depression initiative that does deal with depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, community training in times of disaster and the postnatal depressions. There is also CSA, which is a child supporting agency in Australia that she ought to contact. It does register children, support financially and offer information to the parents on supporting children issues. These are an effective resource within her surrounding that she should use to help her in her current predicament.

There is also a program like Child Centered solutions that is dedicated to protect children in the divorced families as well as custody cases. The other is divorce care for kids (DC4K) which usually helps reduce as well as eliminate the long and short term negative impacts of divorce on children..

In order to offer assistance to children who are affected by divorce to continue with school, there is a children’s foundation program waiting list. Given that in my community there are no many people and lawyers are quite many, the waiting list is not so long thus it is possible to get a lawyer who will represent Clara in court in order to get some personal items from the divorce. He can also consider visiting a psychologist or a psychiatrist to book an appointment. She can book an appointment with a psychologist by emailing, Nadeem Esmail nadeem.esmail@fraserininstitute.org. The resources are usually available but in case of any inconvenience, she should not give up. She should fill for do it yourself forms that are available online in case she has no access of a lawyer.


There ought to be a primary relationship on children with people who can offer a caring sense and fostered by people who are within immediate child’s sphere.  Teachers and parents should work in support of creating environs that does nurture family (Yukti, N.d). They can do this as they come to the realization of Bronfenbrenner’s ideal of creating a policy that does ease and reduce family and work conflicts (Yukti, N.d). We should foster the societal attitudes that do value the work that is done as far as children are concerned and lobby for economical and political policies that do support the role of the parent in the development of the children (David, 1996).

Financial Statement

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Accounting mainly involves analyzing, interpretation and reporting of business transaction records. Accounting provides information for decision making to the management. The purpose of accounting is to maintain proper control of finances of an organization. In other words, accounting is an information system whose purpose is to provide essential information about business financial activities. It is primarily involves design of record keeping system, summarized reports based on the recorded data and eventually interpretation of the reports. (Duane and Charles 1991; Martin & Fernando 2002).

Four basic financial statements are:

Balance sheet:

This records assets and liabilities as well as owner’s equity of a business entity. Assets include current assets such as cash, debtors, securities, and prepayments. Long term assets include land, machineries, plants, and furniture. On the T account liabilities are recorded on the right hand side. They include current liabilities and long term liabilities and owners equity.


Current assets:                                                 Current liabilities:

Cash                            xx                                Accounts payable        xx

Accounts receivable    xx                                Long term liabilities:

Marketable securities  xx                                loans                            xx

Inventory                    xx                                bonds payable             xx

Prepayments                xx                               total liabilities              xx

Total current assets     xx                                owner’s equity                        xx

Long term assets:                                            retained earnings         xx

Land                            xx                                total owner’s equity    xx

Plant and equipment   xx                                total liabilities              xx

Machinery                   xx

Total long term assets xx

Other assets:

Goodwill                     xx

Intangible assets          xx

Total other assets        xx

Total assets                  xx

The income statement

This records revenue and expenses of a business entity for a specific period of time usually one year. Gross profit which is obtained after deducting COGS from the sales. Income before tax is obtained after deducting operating costs from gross profit. After deducting income tax from EBT, net income is obtained.


Cost of sales                                        xx                    sales                 xx

Gross profit                                         xx

Operating expenses                                                     gross profit b/f xx

Wages                         xx

Insurance                     xx

Depreciation                xx

Repairs                        xx

Interest                                    xx

Advertising                 xx

Income before income tax      xx

Income tax

Net income                  xx

Xx                                           Xx

Statement of owner’s equity

This report changes in owner’s equity for specified period. Owner’s equity b/f represents owner’s equity as per last financial year, adding new investment (shares) to this, less withdrawals; one obtains owner equity for the year in consideration

Owners’ equity b/f                              xx

New investment                                  xx

Net income                                          xx

Withdrawals                                        (xx)

Owner equity                                      xx

Statement of cash flows:

This records inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents. It shows changes in the financial position on cash basis.  Cash equivalent represent assets that are convertible to cash within or less than three months


Opening balance                                 xx                    cash outflows

Add cash inflows                                                        purchase of fixed assets          xx

Cash from operations  xx                                preference shares redemption xx

Sales of fixed asset     xx                                loan repayment                        xx

Income from sale                                            dividend, tax payment                        xx

of fixed assets             xx                                                                                xx

Share capita                 xx                                closing balance                        xx

Non trading income    xx

Total                            xx                                                                                xx


Financial statement preparation:

The first step towards preparing financial statement is recording the transactions in the journals. Then the accountant will prepare ledger accounts for every item e.g. machinery, wages, furniture, cash accounts and so on. It is from these ledgers data to prepare the basic financial statement is derived from.

The relationships

Net income/loss reported in income statement forms part of owner’s equity items. If net loss results, it is deducted, if net income results then it is added (in the owner’s equity statement). Owner’s equity as at end of trading period from the owner’s equity statement is recorded in the balance sheet as owner’s capital. Net cash reported in the cash flow statement is the cash reported in the balance sheet (Carl etal 2008)

Users of financial Statement

Financial statements are very useful to managers, investors, creditors, and employees. Managers need to know performance of the business in terms of profit, costs, liquidity, and solvency status so as they appropriately plan and make decisions for future. These statements also help them in budgeting and forecasting the performance. Investors are concerned about maximization of their wealth. These statements show the dividends and other incomes rewarded. They can use the statements to judge potential earnings from the firm. Creditors offer credit facilities to a business. They use these statements to evaluate a business liquidity and solvency status so as they may be able to know ability of a business to meet its short term and long term liabilities. Employees are also concerned to know the performance of their employer. Good performance means continuation of their employment while poor performance is a threat to their employment. (Bhabatosh 2005)

Objectives of financial reporting

Financial reporting is to provide information for decision making. It is also help in forecasting, budgeting, control. Financial reporting determines financial position of a business entity. It also shows income earned. Financial reporting is meant to be used by both internal and external users.

Accounting principles, assumptions and constraints

Accounting principles includes: cost principle; which state that assets and liabilities should be reported at acquisition cost rather than market cost, Revenue principle; state that revenue should be recorded when goods pass into the possession of the buyer (when realizable or earned. Revenue should not be anticipated), matching principle; state that expenses should be matched with revenues accruing from a certain transaction, Disclosure principle; state that, any information that may affect decision making should be disclosed. (Jerry etal 2004).

Assumptions includes: Going concern; a business entity is assumed to be continuing with operations indefinitely, Business entity; this state that business and the owners are separate entities, Time period; operations of a business entity can be divided into time periods, Monetary unit assumption; a stable currency as unit of account  is assumed. (Jerry etal 2004).


Constraints includes: Objectivity principle; financial statement should be objective based on evidence, Materiality principle; any item that is likely to influence decision of the financial accounts user should be included, Consistency principle; accounting principles should be used be consistently. (Jerry etal 2004).

Accounting equation;

The accounting equation is: assets =liabilities + owners’ liabilities. Business transaction leading to increase in assets will affect assets side. However this has to be funded by either owners or creditors. Meaning that, the equation will always be balanced.


Accounting reporting purpose is to provide information for decision making. Accounting standards by both international and national accounting bodies should be adhered to in financial reporting. Basic financial statements are balance sheet, cash flow statement, owners’ equity statement, and income statement. These statements are very useful to both internal and external users as far as decision making is concerned.

Oral History-Immigrant

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America continues to be the centre of attraction for most cultural and ethnic groups. The History of the US is immensely related and rooted to immigration (Elizabeth, 2006). For years now, US has opened doors for those seeking religious, economic and political refuge as well as those who have come strictly for adventure, seek fortune and exploration. The immigrants decide to come to the US because of numerous reasons. Some escape poverty and oppression, others are after reunification with their families who are already in USA, others come to seek employment and most of them come basically for prosperity and fame. The immigrants bring forth many economic benefits to US and add to approximately $ 10 billion annually to American economy (Elizabeth, 2006).  Approximately nine in around ten US immigrants assert that America is effective than their native countries as far as having better prospects to earn a decent living is concerned (Public, Agenda, 2003). Therefore it is imperative to focus on a migrant from Italy to USA and give an analysis on their experiences in USA, reason behind their immigration, economic factors and the roles that race as well as ethnicity played in the life of the immigrant.

The interview was focused on an Italian native who immigrated to America forty three years ago. His name is Luciano Jones. The reason why he immigrated to USA is because of the challenging standard of living in Italy. There was starvation and increase of diseases in Italy and food was expensive among the Italian’s family. Most of the peasants at that time were spending around 75% of their little income on nothing but food. Despite the fact that food was expensive, it did not contain sufficient nutrition to sustain him and the large family of eight that he had. There was then the outbreak of malaria and pellagra because of floods, soil erosion and deforestation. The agricultural system was also very much affected and was not modernized and there was no hope of the situation improving. The Italian agriculture by that time had been hurt by the amplifying amounts of American products in Italian market. There was high rate of unemployment because the peasants and the landowners could not profitably trade. The major reason for Luciano immigration to USA was because of economic crisis with hope of getting refuge and feed his large family back home. Immigration at that time was easy because transportation had been enhanced by cheap railroads and steamships.

On arrival to USA, it was not easy as he had thought. He faced a lot of challenges and even reached a point he felt that home was much better. It was hard to say goodbye to his family and friends and move to USA with little money and having to cope with language barrier and culture. He had as little as eighteen dollars.  He faced overwhelming poverty, prejudice and isolation because he was in a strange country and he did not know anybody. He had to do some of the odd jobs that he had never imagined before. He was treated by the natives as less than actually equal to others and most of the people thought he was stupid, of low class and inferior. Some of the traditions that pertained to family started to change. The American condition was basically not favorable to patriarchal Italian culture and language barriers were quite catastrophic.  He had to learn how to cope with his foreignness and fit as well as adapt to the culture of the American people. There were loaming stereotypes that he was a criminal, an illegal alien who should be deported back at home and he could be embarrassed in public because of his Italian accent. However, he still had his pride and was proud of where he had come from though life was quite challenging. He had to break these stereotypes and at one time expressed some immense sentiments to one of the American native which led to exchange of words. He gave the American native all the rational reasons to show that he was not relying on anyone for public assistance and was earning independently out of hard work. He went through the phases of cultural shock which was so challenging and most of the time he was homesick. After some time, he learnt to communicate in English and found some job. He settled in New York where he got job in a factory. The food was completely different from his native land though nutritious. The main advantage is that in the factory there were more Italian immigrants thus they could speak the same language and at times eat food that was familiar to their culture. Therefore the language, ideals and the customs as well as Italian culture was well preserved because of the neighborhood they had. Luciano at times was ignorant of the customs and laws in America as he had less time to learn about them.

Most of the Americans exploited him by paying him less wages and the landlord took almost everything he could earn. He could work on part time for commission to get money to send back home. The immigrants at that time were living in conditions that were deplorable and in a room that was 12×12 comprised of roughly twenty two people from both sexes and divergent ages with only two beds which had no chair, table or screen. Life living in these houses was scary as plaster was falling, no water, pipes always froze during winter and there were bedbugs. He suffered from high temperatures during winter, sickness and the stuffiness of the rooms. Back home, he was a farmer but when he came to America he could not farm. The reason was because American land was quite expensive, he had to make money as fast as he could and farming usually required a lot of time. Also farming would have reminded him of all the miserable and unappealing conditions he left at home. He was called names like “guinea”, “wop” and others. Some of the stores even refuted to sell him groceries and even rent him a place to stay with the hope he would go back home. He had to go for night classes to learn English which was tough.

Race is currently linked with health risks and vast poor health among the immigrants (Ilene, 2009).  Racism does influence people’s health directly because of the prevailing anxiety, depression, low self esteem and stress (Ilene, 2009) Luciano faced racial discrimination on arrival to USA. He had no equal access in accessing health when he was unwell and was made to wait for longer periods than others and treated with contempt. He hence suffered from stress, depression, disapproval, hopelessness and low self esteem. There was a time when he was admitted and unlike the American natives who had a regular doctor, he had no regular physician and had more unmet health needs.

There was also some positive influence. As time went by he found the city more beautiful than his native land. He enjoyed the change of environment, new and big buildings, mountains, seas and rivers, new faces and even made friends with some of them. He came to enjoy the new food offered and what life offered him as far as job prospect was concerned. He was a fast learner and after learning English he could communicate effectively. He found exploration of the American land quite appealing and looked forward to learning more on the land. He became curious to know more of the American culture and study on their laws to avoid ignorance and criticism from the American natives.

His values have changed since then. As time went by, he found the whole experience to be a blessing because it made him more courageous to face life and be more positive when approaching life. He has learnt to be optimistic. He learnt that for him to cope in USA, he had to immerse himself in American lifestyle and choose friends not basing them on the cultural grounds and identity but on their quality. He finally invited his family over after six years and enrolled the children to various schools. This helped him build more networks of friends. He was keen to raise his children with an immense sense of culture and retain their home culture identity. He had to face the challenge of facing his family go through cultural shock, discrimination in school and encouraged them to face life positively and make friends irrespective of their cultural backgrounds.

They were always discriminated because of their accent; way of dressing and communication issues and had to learn how to walk head high. Immigration has had a lot of benefits to him like amplification in the cultural diversity, increase of the whole economic welfare as well as increase in the standard of their living. He learnt to adapt to the American values without having to complain and now he feels more oriented than before. He came to appreciate the values of the American people and even adopted their lifestyle; way of dressing, communicating and has developed an American accent. He has gained a lot of friends and now he is an owner of a textile industry and employs some Americans. He has gained respect from the natives and they are no longer poor though at times he has to be reminded that he is not an American by people who are just after frustrating him because of his competitive nature. The children today are yet to settle completely and the first born son has incorporated some of the American values to Italian culture and has married an American woman. Before he had invited his family over, he had problems living alone and brought in an American woman in the house to see if things would work out. He had however lied that he was single in order to win the woman. On staying with her, life turned to be so challenging because he realized they were incompatible in everything. The cultural and racial differences put a lot of pressure on the relationship. He had no way to deal with the overwhelming prejudice that was patent. There was a language barrier problem and the lady always looked down upon him with a lot of contempt and superiority.

The fact that she was more educated than him led to more problems as he discovered that they were not intellectually compatible. Some of the problems they faced were values, sex, gender roles, eating habits, friends and her in-laws. The value differences caused major misunderstandings and disagreements thus leading to conflicts. Some of the issues that arose in sex are issues to do with contraception, chastity, sexual practices, dating, romance and way of dressing. She expected to go out every day for a date and could not understand that the man had some financial strains. Luciano believed in chastity in the relationship but the girl could still go out with other men and come back the following day. When questioned she always retorted claiming that America was a free country. She dressed in a way that embarrassed Luciano and was no longer comfortable being seeing with her in public. In the western society the women are usually offered more freedom and liberty (Interracial marriages, N.d) and in this case it was no different.

When it came to gender roles, she practically did nothing as she had a lot of freedom thus could not serve him. Also apparently the woman did not want children and was on contraceptives when Luciano expected her to conceive. There were also mixed and negative societal attitudes from the neighbors who thought that they were together because of status symbols and an upward mobility which he could not take anymore and decided to let go of the relationship.  The family of the girl also had different views on the girl and had more expectations on her and always created controversy between the two.

Their friends were also controversial and had difficulties in comprehending the relationship. He ended up losing some of his Italian friends because of the new relationship.  Luciano now feels that the values though at the beginning presented to be negative; he has now fully assimilated the American lifestyle now views it quite positively than before. He also had to cope with the rate of modernization and in his business he has learnt to be influential and competitive by acknowledging there are other textile businesses. Modernization and technology impact has helped him in research and learn on ways to improve his business and compete with other industries. Modernization also required him to go to school and learn on IT concepts to understand fully on how to cope with the high technological trends. The values have now earned him new friends, more job prospects, integrity, respect, and acceptance in a foreign land.

The interview ended in a high note. Luciano does not regret ever coming to America as he has learned a lot. He is now multicultural, understands the American lifestyle and has gained a lot of friends. He can now cater for his big family and some of them have found jobs in the country. He has adapted perfectly well and believes that even the younger children will adapt fully with ease. He is optimistic of a better future and he is appreciative that America has given him a chance to mature intellectually, socially, professionally, academically and financially.





















Interview notes

  1. Interviewee full names and profession at Italy

Luciano Jones ;peasant farmer

  1. Reasons for immigration

The reasons for immigrating from Italy to USA was unemployment, underemployment, little medical care, high mortality, poor housing, exploitation, overpopulation and high demand by the big family, high food expenses, agricultural crisis, deforestation, soil erosion, floods, diseases and low nutritious food. Luciano went to look for an opportunity to get a better life and earn better salary to cater for his family. Immigration was eased by effective transport means. Life was difficult at home and needed a change of the environment.

  1. Challenges faced and experience

He faced problems like language barrier, culture divergence, discrimination; health, accent, dressing lifestyle and was seen as a criminal. He had no idea of the American laws and had less time to learn. He had dating problems and the congestion in the rooms they rented. He was discriminated and at times he could not buy in the grocery or be allowed to rent a room. He had less education thus got odd jobs. He was called names and was unfairly treated even in the hospitals. He received fewer wage and went through cultural shock. He was lonely and homesick and the hot temperatures affected him. He dated an American woman. In dating he faced problems in dating, sex, gender roles, and problem with in laws and friends. Adapting to the new culture was difficult. The children also had to cope with cultural shock and discrimination.

  1. Impact of  racism and ethnicity

It led to low self esteem, depression, stress and disapproval. He became homesick and led to conflicts between him and some Americans. It led to a state of hopelessness and negativity.

  1. Benefits of Immigration and impact of values

Luciano learnt to be courageous and persistent. He learnt to persevere and became financially mature as well as socially, physically and emotional mature.  He learnt to cope with the culture and came to appreciate US values. He gained a lot of friends and was in a position to take cater for the family and offer financial and emotional support. He got his own business, learnt more on American culture, went back to school and learnt English and IT and got acknowledgement and more respect. His children went to school and assimilated the American lifestyle. He came to appreciate the American culture, admired the American natural sceneries and became oriented to the surroundings and the people. Values influenced his life positively finally though it was difficult at first. Modernization made him more open minded and focused thus he decided to go to school in order to compete effectively.

Customer Behavior

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The behavior of the consumer largely guides the trend in the market. However, it needs to be appreciated that the behavior of the consumer will not only be determined by public and social factors. The social factors are numerous and insurmountable in numbers however, of particular interest within this paper is class exhibition and status.

Most consumers will always want their social class appreciated. In doing this their consumption behavior is exhibited. The affluent will always wish to drive very posh cars, the poor will opt for commuter transport yet the ultimate satisfaction would just be that; getting to the desired destination.

In the quest for consumers showing off or enjoying their status the lives of the masses are exposed to immense risks. Indeed if every person capable of using cars then the emissions into the atmosphere for carbons will be as many (Mason, K. 2005, p 12). While the entire use of cars would be treated as an opportunity, the ultimate implication will be that the emission into the atmosphere not only affects the poor but the very users of the fuel guzzlers. While the use of the fuel guzzlers will present a lucrative opportunity, the ultimate outcome would be that the environment is so polluted that it jeopardizes the entire populace.

The emission into the atmosphere does pose a risk to the populace. This is the challenge that comes with this social consumer behavior. Yet still, the wanton use of the cars would just cause much jam within most of the cities if every capable commuter chose to use their cars. In addition it need to be appreciated that the utter use of the cars, in the long run end up consuming much energy in form of fuel than if they commuted.

If all he users of cars in Brisbane today opted to use commuter transport, statistics do indicate that the fuel costs would be reduced by 27% while the efficiency of transport will go up by an astounding 19% (Romando, R. 2007, p 64). The overall implication is that the would be that some man hours of up to 120000 man hours would be saved per day from this venture. If the man-hour is converted into money at the rate of $7 per man hour this translates to 9.8millions per day. Ultimately this would be used to improve the lives of many residents of Australia.

The pollution caused by the emission of carbon into the atmosphere would be quite high if all those in Australia who are able to drive would just do that, the overall mitigation costs would just escalate. If conservation energy would inform the decision on whether or not to allow the use of cars without any restriction, then the decision by government will be to limit the number of vehicle using the roads as much as possible.

The overall social effect will be that the populace will be made to appear to be lower class. But then the greenhouse effect would have just been mitigated to some reasonable extent. It should be indeed admitted that the use of cars is not only convenient but also enhances privacy and comfort, but nonetheless the effect on the future of the next generation is utterly jeopardized.

Te cost of cars in the long run is relatively expensive. It is therefore worthwhile that the number of cars be reduced by whatever legal means to not only mitigate the greenhouse effect but also reduce the overall cost effect on the government (Kotler, P., & Lee, R.L. 2007, p 23). In addition, the evident gap between the poor and the rich would be reduced or rather in some way disguised. Well the whole aspect of the use of the cars should not just be disguised, if offers not only convenience but it also adds on the consumer assets.

In the government’s quest to reduce the emission and conserve the environment, the government increases the taxes on the importation of motor vehicles. The marketers on the other hand are trying to find ways of reducing the emission of the carbons in the atmosphere. In addition, the government is imposing a lot of parking taxes on those who come into town with their vehicles. This is meant to discourage the use of cars. Marketers on the other hand are using the exploring ways of reducing the release of carbons by the cars.


Elaborate likelihood model

The attitude of the general public can actually influence their consumption behavior. The attitude may be influenced by a number of factors however the central factor is normally the aspect of persuasions.  Persuasion is the primary source of the elaborate likelihood model of consumer behavior.

This model features two approaches that are either peripheral of central persuasion approaches. In the aspect of the use of the cars vis-à-vis the use of the commuter vehicles the consumer is allowed to make a decision after the consumer is made aware of the pros and the con of the use of the product. The impact of the persuasions ultimately amounts into the likelihood model.

Within the mandate and context of this approach the consumers are feed with sufficient information on the same and are allowed to make rational and informed decisions on their own (Kotler, P., & Lee, R.L. 2007). The key principle in this approach to consumer behavior is the involvement of the consumers in the process of decision making. Motivation is also a key component of the whole process; the marketer simply motivates the consumer and leaves the consumer to make the decision on his own.

In this context the consumers are offered the information on the effects of the car they are buying on the environment. However if the marketer takes the peripheral rule the marketer may not give the requisite information and may end up not guiding the consumer adequately. On the other hand if the consumer is to be motivated towards the use of the commuter vehicle rather than the personal cars.

III. Recommendations

The effects of the adverse use of the cars within he market if not checked may end up just wiping out humanity in the next 60 years. The approach to the 4ps of the promotional strategy will along way in alleviating the challenges that are coming with adverse use of the cars. The approach to the marketing strategies will take the under discussed form. If adopted this will go a long way in the checking the trend greenhouse effect.

Product Strategy

The cars produced will be made with the least emission of carbon with an inbuilt absorbent of carbon that is emitted (Elaborate likelihood model). To make the car even affordable and chosen relative to the other cars that have high levels of carbon emission, the model of cars will be priced highly.

In addition the overall outlook of the cars of this model will be made to appear more aesthetic than the other forms of cars. The inside will be modified to assume the state-of-the-art shape. Because the market (consumer) is readily persuaded by the overall appearance the consumers will be convinced to otherwise adopt this model other than the models that emits a lot of carbons. This strategy will go along way in reducing the carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

The commuter vehicles will also be developed in a modest and attractive manner as to attract the use of the vehicle by the public (Kotler, P., & Lee, N. 2007, p 23). This will encourage both the poor and the middle class cadre of consumers to opt for this mode of transport. The services offered by this commuter vehicle will also be reviewed such that they are not of effective but are also relatively reliable with sufficient efficacy.

The rates of the services will also be made moderate o ensure the desire to spend by the middle class is not denied while ensuring that equally the poor are not strained in their expenditures. This will promote the use of the commuter vehicle reduce the use of the cars and ultimately reduce the emissions of carbons. Besides, the overall expenditure on fuels will be reduced besides the reduction of the strains on the road.

Placement strategy

Within this strategy the consumer is provided with the services at the required place. The placement process is inclusive of warehousing, electronic downloads, shipment, middlemen and fulfillment (Durvasula, S, Andrews, J. C, Lysonski, S; Netemeyer, R G. p 631). Within this context however, placement or distribution entails the provision of the cars and the commuter vehicle services within the required time and at the required place.

To alleviate the problem of depletion of the ozone layer and the subsequent greenhouse increase in the greenhouse effect, fuel guzzlers will be made barely available. The vehicle with inbuilt carbon absorbent will be made available at all customer point. In addition the costs of warehousing of the fuel guzzlers will be extrapolated to ensure the overall supply of the guzzlers is low.

The supply of the guzzlers will be reduced to increase the prices of the guzzlers. Similarly, the taxes levied on the guzzlers will be increased; this will lead to an overall scare of the consumers from purchasing the guzzlers over time. Middlemen will be increased in the distribution chain for the guzzlers; the increase in the number of middlemen will make the chain tedious and scare of the consumers from the imminent use of the guzzlers.

The supply of the cars with the carbon absorbent will be made very efficient, with sufficient models to cadre for the diversity in the market (Lee, R.; Christensen, G L; DeRosia, E D p 600). To support the course further the cars with carbon absorbent will be given a warranty by the suppliers of six month and the one year after service. With all this trade baits, the consumers will be ultimately persuaded to refute the fuel guzzlers for the alternative cars.

Promotional strategy

The strategy adopted for the purpose of promotion of the commuter vehicle services and the subsequent discouragement of the use of the guzzlers and heavy carbon emitters will be robust and quite strategic. First, the promotional prospects will be done hand in hand with the importance of conservation of the environment (Patel S and schlijper A). The promotion on the guzzlers will be stopped, or where need be to clear the stocks, mild.

The marketers will largely carry out promotions of the efficacy of the commuter vehicles. This will show the consumers that the commuter’s vehicles are not but after all. The safety and the comfort of the commuters’ buses and vehicle will be emphasized dully, with spats of effects of pollution of the environment (Hoyer W D,, Macinnis D J 2007, p 123). Those who use the commuter vehicle more often will be rewarded through the introduction of a loyalty program to encourage the continued use of the commuter vehicles. Further still those with private vehicles who opt for the use of the commuter vehicle, will have an additional reward.

Advertisement of the guzzlers will be banned from the basic media channels to reduce the promotional effect of the guzzlers. Where the need will be inevitable, the airtime will be restricted.

Pricing Strategy

The pricing of the commuter vehicle will be subsidized to ensure the supply of the commuter services is dully reduced. In addition the taxes on the commuter services will be cut down to ensure that the pricing is as low to encourage many to use the commuter vehicles.

The pricing of the guzzler will be increased to ensure that their subsequent purchase is reduced. On the other hand the pricing of the carbon absorbent cars will be fairly priced to further discourage the use of the guzzlers. Effectiveness of the commuter vehicle will be enhanced through the increased supply of the commuter services.

Ultimately, once the commuter services are improved, affordable, effective and relatively reliable, there will be a shift from the use of private vehicles to the use of commuter vehicles. In earnest the overall effect will be the reduction in the emission of carbons and reduction in the depletion of the ozone layer.

IAHC Essay

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The Aboriginal population of Australia has face many economic and health difficulties. The population of Aborigines is made of both urban and remote populations; both however have adverse ratings on various social indicators including education, health, unemployment, poverty and crime (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002, pp 20). Negative outcomes have been endemic in the history of the Aborigines, a situation that remains the same to date. Due to the low social indicators among the Aborigines as compared to the rest of Australia, there have been several policies and legislation aimed at changing the situation. The Northern Territory Intervention is one such attempt but like most policy and practice it has failed to achieve effective impact.  This paper describes the interventions in the Northern Territory Intervention and identifies a program that has actually been successful amongst the Indigenous people in an attempt to come up with suggestions that can be applied to programs and policies addressing the issues of the Aboriginal people.



The Northern Territory Intervention was an initiative of the Howard government in June 2007 (Tsey and Every, 2000, pp 509). The intervention was initiated in response to sexual abuse of children but it had larger aims of dealing with issues other than the more direct causes of child abuse. The measures for the intervention were to be started in prescribed areas. These included the Aboriginal land as defined by the Northern Territory Act of 1976, Aboriginal community areas given as freehold to Aboriginal corporations and town camp areas which had been declared under the Northern Territory 2007 Act (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007, pp12).


The NT interventions covered education, family health, child health, welfare reform, employment, housing, land ownership and law and order. Excessive drug use and violence were also among the issues to be addressed by the emergency measures (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007, pp15). Some measures drew some amount of controversy such compulsory health checks for Aboriginal children and quarantining some welfare payments to certain specific purposes by changing the Community Development Education Program (CDEP) to an employment and jobs services program (Tsey et al, 2005, pp112 ). The NT intervention was welcomed as a whole but some of its aspects have been criticized strongly both by the Aboriginal community and those outside the Aboriginal community. Due to heavy criticism, the compulsory health checks for children were removed. When there was change of office, other changes were made such as the reinstatement of CDEP and a greater commitment for the review of CDEP’s operations.


The Aboriginal people largely felt that their culture was being blamed for problems that had been brought about by years of low government spending in education, housing and other services. Most of the electorate assumed that the poor school attendance rates of the Aboriginal children were due to poor parenting. An evaluated trial however indicated that this was just one of many factors that influenced school attendance (Behrendt, 2008, pp6). Evidence has pointed out there are differences in school attendance in children of one family. Additionally, school attendance was influenced by overcrowding. Criticism was leveled at the attempts to link welfare to behavioural change with the argument that use of such punitive measures would only be effective in adding stress to an already dysfunctional situation (Tsey, 2008, pp8-10). Noel Pearson, an influential Indigenous reformer and thinker held that the focus on policing and alcohol was important but there also needed to be a strategy in which social and cultural ownership could be built (Pearson, 2007, pp 4, pp6). Many commentators condemned the approach used by the Federal Government in hastily preparing legislation that would underpin the intervention. In their approach there was hardly any consultation with the community (Havene, 2007, pp5).


The Aboriginal people and others too felt that the interventions under the NTER were discriminatory. This is supported by the fact that the Racial Discrimination Act was suspended when the policy was rolled out (Berhendt, 2008, pp6). The policy took away the rights of the people and left them without an avenue through which they could seek redress. The way in which it was applied was also questionable as it covered everyone in the prescribed areas regardless of whether they had children or not. Some veterans who had fought in the war also found their pensions quarantined. The use of slogans likes ‘you can’t eat rights’ by pro-reform and pro-welfare groups justified this kind of action. Other slogans used to justify such actions include statements like ‘this is for your own good’. All these however just seem to be excuses to trample on human rights under the pretext that the ends justifies the means. It indicates total disregard for human rights and shows poor policy making. The failure to use research when determining policy may be somewhat to blame for the adoption of false dichotomy policies that assume either/or situations as the NT interventions have done.


The data obtained to describe the success of the NT intervention has also not been sufficient to support its existence. For instance, the government claims that the interventions have led to increased consumption of fresh food because community stores are selling more food (Berhendt, 2008, pp6). The basis of this ‘evidence’ however is only ten phone calls made to community stores which asked whether there had been any increase in sales of fresh foods. Six of these ten said yes, while three said no and one said that they did not know (Berhendt, 2008, pp6). This evidence is very inconclusive as it does not tell us who bought the food, whether it was the people affected by the quarantined income or whether it was public servants or the army who were involved in rolling out the intervention. Briefly, this is not hard evidence because there was not even data available about the consumption rates before the intervention that would be compared with fresh food consumption rates after so as to effectively say that the intervention has had the effect of increasing fresh food consumption.



Success in achieving impact with the Aboriginal community perhaps lies in tackling complex issues such as reconstruction of community norms that are based on social responsibility and social norms. By looking at programs that have been successful in indigenous people perhaps we can learn something. Evidence show that to get Aboriginal children to go to school certain things work, such as programs that allow the Elders of the Aboriginal community into school, having lunch and breakfast programs and Aboriginal teachers aides as well as Aboriginal teachers (Berhendt, 2008, pp7). Educationalist Chris Sarra has developed a program in which children’s self esteem and confidence are built by engaging their culture while focusing one academic excellence (Berhendt, 2008, pp7).The programs that have been effective show that it is important to build a relationship with the community in which the community members are empowered.


The Family Wellbeing empowerment program was developed by indigenous people based in Adelaide. This group had been affected by the stolen generation policies, they were among the children who had been taken out of their families and raised in foster homes or government institutions from around 1910 to 1970 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002, pp21). The people who designed the FWB program felt that little was being done to assist the Indigenous families to develop the capacity and skills to address the hurt and pain of the past as well as the daily challenges of being a marginalized community (Tsey and Every, 2000, pp 114). Difficulty in addressing daily problems led to statistics which indicated very high drug abuse rates among Aborigines (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2003).  The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2005, pp10) reports that the Aborigines were more likely to consume alcohol to a level that would increase their risk for harm both in the short-term and long-term as compared to other Australians.


The group conducted a survey to find out about the survival experiences of contemporary Indigenous Australians. The results of the consultations were the basis of the FWB program. The content of the program relies heavily on a wide variety of spiritual and therapeutic traditions for example meditation and visualization. These were considered appropriate and suitable for the Indigenous Australian population as well as adaptable to the needs of non-Indigenous Australians.


FWB began in 1993; they held informal meetings within the community where the people shared their daily experiences and provided support for one another (Tsey, 2008, pp7). This led increased awareness on the power that can be accrued from information sharing in supportive and safe groups. The program then developed into a flexible but structured learning process in which there are five stages consisting of about 30-40 hours of learning in a group. The most central thing to the community is the opportunity to articulate and reflect the values that guide people in dealing with their past and their current social relationships.


The first stage deals with the basic needs of a human being and some behaviors that may result when these needs are not met for example substance abuse. The second stage deals with the change process and the opportunities change presents for developing strengths and qualities. The third stage deals with family violence and an analysis of values related to violence and abuse as well as skills of healing from relationships that are destructive. Stage 4 focuses on the importance of having a balance in life, the importance of traditions and values. The final stage provides practical experience to enable people who have gone through the previous stages to become skilled and confident facilitators in the program.


A follow-up study on the people who had participated in the FWB program indicated the positive effect of the study (Tsey, 2008, pp 8). The participants reported being able to cope better with stressful situations without necessarily turning violent or turning to alcohol. They also reported relating better with their family members and children. The impact of change and personal empowerment seemed to have a lasting effect (Tsey, 2008, pp10). The success of this program is however tempered by the fact that sustainable and consistent government support for programs that actually worked among the Indigenous people was low. This coupled with the urgency and large scale of work required so as to help others within the community creates a significant barrier to change.



The program described above indicates that one of the best ways to reduce the disparity between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people is to involve the Indigenous people in the delivery and design of programs in their communities. The FWB participants have continued to be contact and resource persons as the program has expanded (Tsey, 2008, pp10). Making Indigenous people central to program delivery can be done by rebuilding the interface between the Aboriginal community and government by use of representative structures in which people can consult and work with the Indigenous people. Training and education are also important for capacity building but this should include changing from simple solutions such as removing children from homes to take them to boarding schools to a wider range of strategies which build on the capacities and skills of both adults and young people who still need to maintain contact with their loved ones even if they do leave home for better education opportunities (Berhendt, 2008, pp7).


Other ways of increasing Indigenous people participation include increasing the number of Indigenous people who are engaged in development of Aboriginal policies especially those working in the public service. Providing flexible work systems that have the comprehension that most of the Indigenous community does not have a viable workforce. This will assist in providing services to the community while at the same time building skills and capacity within the community (Berhendt, 2008, pp 6-7).


Most of the policy targeting Indigenous people has always been intervention or emergencies. The problem with such an approach is that it rarely looks at the underlying issues thus the long term problems which need to be addressed are often not addressed. Disadvantage requires solutions that are long term rather than reacting to a crisis. This means providing adequate resources for provision of essential services and implementation of programs that involve Indigenous people.


The use of evidence based solutions will also be necessary in a bid to achieve the indigenous health and well being that is required. Research needs to be carried out after implementation of programs to find out how effective these programs have been using proper research methodology. Where a program is found to be successful the reasons behind its success can be identified and the program perhaps applied to another indigenous community. Where failure has occurred, the reasons for the failure also need to be identified so that these are not repeated. All in all the importance of inclusion of indigenous people cannot be overemphasized as well as a combination of bio-psycho-social components in managing the low social indicators amongst the Indigenous people.

National Culture and International Financial Reporting Standards:

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Effective implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) in different countries is not an easy task. Poor infrastructures as well as internal influences are one the causes that have lead to partial implementation of IFRSs. Differences in national culture in accounting have a big role to play.  Religion also plays a big role. For instance, Islamic religion is against paying or receiving interest. (Deegan 2009)

Various national cultures have different opinions about recognition and measurement issues which are sometimes influenced by political forces. Accounting bodies in various countries plays a big role in ensuring implementation of accounting standards. E.g., in USA there is General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Sarbanes-Oxley act also has a big role to play in ensuring desirable accounting reporting. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is the regulatory accounting regulatory body.  Standards of IASB are based on ‘principles’ while those of FASB are based on ‘rules’. In other words, a principle based standards imply that an account should employ basic principles to ensure accurate and true financial statements. Rule based standards on the other hand state that, accurate and true financial reporting will be attained by following specific rules. The argument is that principle rule may not be appropriate since it may encourage accountant to rely so much on judgment.  Rule based standards may encourage accountants to unearth loopholes in the rules. In Australia the Australian Accounting Standards Board is the board concerned with developing accounting standards, and Accounting Concepts Statements. IASB has to rely on AASB to ensure implementation of IFRSs in Australia. (Deegan 2009)

There is existence of conceptual inconsistency as these IFRSs are being integrated to accounting practice of different countries in the world. The national culture (law) has been dominant in many countries and sometimes is the only guide to financial reporting. Some laws are interested at identifying profit for taxation purpose. In some nations, many businesses are owned by family and thus have little pressure to disclose financial interests.  In other countries, businesses are owned by a large number of shareholders and institutional investors who have other financial institutions to meet their needs. (Deegan 2009)

National characteristics encompassing morality, prudence, openness and assumptions of society order affect recognition of financial transactions, recording, measurement and communication. (Deegan 2009)

There is also an issue about what is true and fair view in accounting. Different national cultures have different interpretation of this concept. National culture has a great role in interpreting this concept. It is imperative that any financial statement should be relevant for decision makers, faithful representation of financial position of a business entity, represent true economic substance of the transactions, free from biasness, prudent, and be complete in material respect. Some culture emphasizes preparation of accounting statements for various users. Concentration of IASB on capital market as the user of financial statements has also become an issue. Various accounting boards will focus on other groups of financial statements users eg suppliers, customers, creditors and employees. Eg in Italy financial statements are creditors and legal oriented. (Deegan 2009)



It is also apparent that IASB must work through national governments, security regulators and standards setting bodies to ensure organizations complies with IFRSs in their financial reporting. Support from various countries accounting bodies will enhance implementation of IFRSs. Adoption IFRSs lies on the good will of the standards setters in various countries.


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Hotel industry has had tremendous shift from the traditional services where the customer sought for the services to a level where the industry has to aggressively market its brands to meet the expectation of the ever changing market (Brown, A). Customer relation plays a central role in the development of the strategy aimed at improving and increasing the sales prospects of the industry. The management of these relations is therefore very cardinal and inevitable in the industry’s pursuit to success.

This paper looks at the overall customer relations management aspect of the Hilton hotel. First, the paper looks at a brief over view of the hotel. In the overview the paper looks at a brief history of the Hilton chain of hotels. Having been started by Conrad Hilton in the 1919, the hotel has indeed undergone a relatively substantive transformation both in infrastructure and service delivery. Besides, the hotel has over the period undertaken numerous reforms in its service delivery prospects. The paper addresses the issue of competition in the market. Ideally, competition is a key driving force in any business that be. The paper looks at the possible changes that are being experienced in the ever competitive hotel industry. In deed the customer relations management strategy are very central in this analysis. The paper takes an in-depth analysis of the customer relation strategies taking central considerations of the versatile market.

Any markets will always be segmented for one reason or the other. The paper addresses the aspect of customer segmentation by looking at the criteria used in the industry’s segmentation process. The customer relation chain is also very a vital principle in the decision making on the value chain of any industry. In addition, the intimacy of the industry with its customer determines the market trend of any firm. The paper addresses this central aspect of CRM with equal zeal.

The development of the HHonors program by the Hilton hotel industry has been a central component in its ever-expanding business. The paper looks at how the check in information is analyzed in the industry’s quest to honor customer loyalty. The loyalty programs have considerably catapulted the hotels turnover over the years. The paper looks at the future prospects of utilizing the strategy even more to harness much from the market.

The paper wraps up by making recommendation on possible policies for adoption to beef up the industry’s prospects. Recommendations are made with a projection of a three year period. The paper then gives a brief conclusion on the future prospect of the Hilton hotel industry based on the discussion.

2.0 Hotel Industry Overview 

The hotel industry has robust and overwhelming prospects. However, this prospect can only be tapped with proper management and sound planning. Every traveler will always yearn to access some facilities that offer an alternative home away from home.  Ideally moving away from home need not present a lonely feeling. Rather the travel should present an exceptional and worthwhile encounter. Besides, the travel should equally offer office away from the usual working office.

The requirement in the hotel industry today is that the en suite provides should have separate bedroom and living rooms. According to the American hotel and motel association for example, the number of such all suite has risen over the years to about 5% of the hotel facilities available. Ideally this approach has tried to address the sections of the market hat had been previously overlooked. In particular this addresses the needs of families who travel together and yet have to book in separately. In addition some business people travel and have a dire need for combining business and pleasure. The all suites offer such customer satisfactory services and their embrasure has been indeed a milestone.

The hotel industry is so competitive and yet very fragile that any loopholes in the customer relation management would lead to massive drop backs in terms of turnover. Any firm in the industry that has to turn in the sales has to adequately strategize on its customer relations management. This relationship with the customer will not only have the customer acquired but will also go a mile further by ensuring the very customers are retained.

It is notable that the most of the player in the hotel industry are putting in place some loyalty programs as a way of retaining the acquired customers. In addition, in their quest to even bring on board new customers, they are adopting price leadership to ensure that their bid appears most competitive yet their services are equally invaluable.

3.0 Overview of the Hilton Hotel

Hilton hotel has over the years lived above board in the hospitality industry. It brands have had exceptional allures and to date the industry is developing new, lucrative and yet above board brands. The upscale and full service catering industry has particular interests in the hospitality ventures in travel and leisure guests. Fervently, one will recommend Hilton to anybody who wants a distinctive hotel.

The whole idea of the Hilton chains of hotel came into a real reality after the great granddaughter of Conrad Hilton, Paris, a daughter of one of the sons of Conrad Hilton, took the whole dream to a high realizable level (The History of Hilton Hotels). Paris has over the years developed into a real hotel magnate. Today, the hotels are known for offering above board and exclusive world class accommodation facilities in major cities in the world. Commonly, the hotels are known for the Hilton Meeting Business Centre. The hotels are known for their comfortable and prestigious services world over.

Internationally, the Hilton hotel is known for its Hilton Meeting Business Centre. The chain gives exceptional priority to business travels (The History of Hilton Hotels). The hotel has over the years since inception led the road for business executives on the road. The managing director in charge of sales sees the dire need for the emphasis of the meeting for business as a mode of knowledge exchange and inevitable for the development of business executives.

There are also official hotel groups of athletes in the UK, the Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The hotels have also developed programs on the computer to enhance the preference of the customers. Memorable, is room 902 in Amsterdam famously known for the first bed-In, staged by Yoko Ono and John Lennon in 1969 to enhance peaceful coexistence. Notably the Hilton hotel industry is the most recognized firm in the global lodging industry. The hotel has offered services for over 80 years to date. The hotel puts expended consideration on the needs of business and the desire of the leisure travelers for quality yet very exceptional services. Within the without the tides the Holton hotel chains have remained above board in its quest for service delivery.

4.0 Competitor Customer Relations Strategy

The upsurge of the business world over has seen a similar increase in the competitiveness of the hotel business. The positioning of the Hilton hotel this fluid and fragile market is therefore of central import in the hotels pursuit for taking a large market share. There are a few hotel chains that are offering substantive competitions to the Hilton hotel chains. Amongst them are Accor hotel chains, Starwood hotel chains and the Intercontinental chain of hotels.


4.1 Accor Chain of Hotels

The chain of hotels has developed a management table that is used in ensuring that the key components of it development agenda are addressed. The table details the management objectives for each theme. The table puts expended value on its customer and all the projects put in place are meant to ensure that the customers are addressed to satisfactory level.

The management monitors the performance of each theme. In particular the management monitors closely the numbers of the customers being turned in. in additions the management closely looks at the concerns of the customer and are addressed expeditiously to show to customers their value to the chains. The chains have also introduced loyalty programs. Notably, the chains offer free weekends for each three or more visits to the premises.

4.2    Starwood Hotel Chains

The hotel chain has built a wide network. The Starwood hotel has developed networks with American express and the MBNA Canada Bank. This makes the hotel very competitive as the prospective customers are able to access services so readily after making payments locally. Besides, the hotel has affiliated itself to 32 airlines. This airline allows the hotels customers to redeem their loyalty points for the sake of their travels under the SPG Flight program. Records indicate that the hotel has 41 million members of the program. This membership indicates the hotels market niche.

4.3    Intercontinental Hotels Group

The hotel has a developed an integrated website through which it effectively markets its brands and the brands of allied firms. The hotel group has an elaborate call centre and loyalty program. It delivers about 70% of its premise to customer at night (Buttle F., 2000, p 64). The brand seems to offer unmatched and flexible services. The group delivers reservation to allied hotels at very significant rates. The hotel has equally developed a six pronged approach to marketing and sales making the brands under its umbrella renowned world over.

5.0 Hilton’s CRM Value Chain 

The central objective of developing a value chain is to understand the best approach to gaining competitive advantage over the competing firms in the industry (Juliana). The Hilton hotel has developed a number of activities geared towards having the industry have an edge over its competitors. Ideally the value chain adopted by the Hilton hotel offers its customers a level of values slightly above the cost of the services without compromising the quality of the services. Subsequently, the hotels use the strategy to make profits margins that are not extrapolated.

5.1 Customer portfolio management

5.1.1 Segmentation 

The understanding of the nature and the fragmentation of the market is inevitable for any business. The Hilton hotel company has put this component of customer portfolio management as a central component of management. The company places expended importance on the different segments of its market. The segmented market assists the hotel to understand the customer more than the hotels likely competitor (The Value Chain). In addition, segmentation ensures that the customers are retained besides offering an opportunity for the ease of penetration.

The Hilton hotel has adopted three segmentation approaches. In particular the mission of the customers is taken as central segmentation criteria. The demographic patterns as determined by the data mining have also informed the hotel over its segmentation approach (Juliana). The age of the customer may also determine the desires and the demands of the customer; these ages have been analyzed to determine the possible market needs.

Though social class has been viewed overall as a poor method of segmentation, it incessantly happens to play an inevitable role in the segmentation process. The criterion maintains a discriminatory power and can not be waived away. In particular, the expenditure behavior of pensioners and other low income cadre of customers are utterly distinct and it is inherently this criterion that distinguishes them.







The hotel has an elaborate value chain system that handles internal logistics, the operations of the CRM department, outbound logistics, marketing and sales and services. Ultimate, this chain has over the time assisted to improve the sales of the hotel chains.

5.1.2 Data mining

The techniques used here are meant to assist the hotel to make sense of the complex data available and make meaningful resolution from the data that can be made practical. The process assists the hotel to identify the relationships between certain variable. For example the hotel would use the data to determine the correlation between the seasons and the hotel booking in patterns.

The data obtained and analyzed is used to forecast the expenditure patterns in days to come. In addition the hotel uses the data to identify the winners of its loyalty programs and award them. Further the data mining process gives insight into the effect of the loyalty program on the sales and can be used to make improvements on the loyalty programs that are in existence. Ideally, the hotel would increase the base of the program if its overall effect has bolstered the sales. The process is elaborate in orientation and it goes through stages for the hotel to adopt the requisite approach to segmentation and marketing.









The marketing campaign for the hotel will address the market in accordance to the life cycle of the customers.

5.1.3 Customer Intimacy 

The Hilton hotel ahs developed customer intimacy through well cultivated relationships with customer with a core objective of serving them better and satisfying their unique needs. The hotel seeks operational excellence through close interaction of customers and customer prospective. The process of operational excellence automatically translates into customer intimacy. In the long run the mindset of the customer plays the retention role of the customer and bring new one on board.

5.1.4 HHonors Program and the Conversion Of The Points

The loyalty programs are adequately introduced to retain customers and bring new ones on board. The most common loyalty program is the HHonors. This program allows customers to win stays in the 3500 chains world over. When one accesses services from the Hilton hotel points are won depending on the cost of the services. The point can be converted into travel miles or stays in the hotel chains.

HHonors presents a world of exceptional and cherished rewards. You’ll discover rewards you won’t find with any other hotel program – including those that are just right for you. Redeem your points for Diamond Jewelry rewards for members in the Mexico or Asia/Pacific regions. HHonors leisure Rewards offer a chance to redeem your points for a vacation the whole family can enjoy. Earn miles – without even taking a flight. To earn airline miles for your stays, simply stay at a Hilton Worldwide hotel, pay an eligible rate, and present your airline frequent flyer program account number at time of reservation and at check-in.

5.1.5 Customer Loyalty and Customer Experience

The momentum of customer experience will always go a long way in the developing the loyalty of the very customers. Ideally, the hotel has always gone beyond the browser to offer something above the browser presentation. The experiences the customers get the hotel chains further their loyalty. The hotel chains has also invested enough in the improvement of cross-channel interactions, this has essentially been the hotels priority over the past 6 years.

The cross channel property of CRM has been the hotel chain’s key differentiator. The hotel chains have relentlessly tried to marry what happens in the call centers and what is presented on the website. Practically and world over, there has always a delinked relationship between the website and the call centers for most businesses, this characteristic behavior of the hotel chains sets it apart.



5.1.6 Network Development Suppliers

Suppliers of services in any industry determine the extent of the success of any business. The Hilton hotel holds its supplier in such high esteem that they have been taken as part of the hotel. While this is utterly meant to ensure that the services and goods of the right quality and quantity are supplied; it goes along way in facilitating sales promotion of the hotel. Customers

The role of the customer service is to ensure that the needs of the customer are met. The Hilton hotel has invested much resources aimed at making sure the needs of the customers are established. In addition, the hotel provides forums through which the customers can give their views about their impression of the hotel. This provides the hotel with information concerning future innovations and development of the hotel.

Customer complains are taken with expended zeal. The complaints of the customer are made through calls; the numbers for this purpose are provided to customer and customer prospective. In the event of a complaint, the management takes it upon itself to apologize and explain. In circumstances where the customer still feels dissatisfied, the money paid if any is refunded.

The Hilton hotel takes excellence in service delivery as a must. Presumably, the observation or experience in terms of service superiority to the visitor is significantly related to the setting they wanted to be in. for the Hilton hotels a lot of premium is attached on the efficiency and the effectiveness of the services delivered to its customers. The hotel takes excellence and efficiency as intertwined and inseparable. The hotel’s service quality puts focus on the cautious management of the process involved in the production and distribution of services and products.

The hotels goal is to provide products whenever and wherever customer wants them, refine its services and develop products that are new and capable of suiting the needs and desires of he customers.  Driven by this goal, the Hilton gives prominence to customer service. The staffs have adopted basics for management including smiling and greeting of the customer, good service, presentation and deals with service challenges themselves without seeking a manager.

The Hilton management, rather than supervising its staff, coaches its staff towards the delivery of quality services. The employees ate taught and provided with information rather than being given commands. In addition there is internal competition which prompts innovation amongst the staff.  For the Hilton hotel the most valuable asset is its staff and it is treated with expended zeal. Ideally, they are the employees who should provide the requisite service to the customers. The Hilton management has given the disabled customer sufficient attention by providing facilities that can serve them. Partners

The hotel chains have partnered numerous businesses for varied business objective ends. In particular the partnering with numerous airlines has played a pivotal role in its quest to have its partners readily redeem their point for miles. The hotel has also partnered Magnon Promotion Inc. The company has been quite handy in the hotel chains prospects for carrying out sales promotion and advertisement.  The hotel has also partnered with the US Olympic teams that is being used not only for sales promotion but is also being sponsored for its activities. Ownership and Investors in the Hilton Hotel Chains

The Hilton hotel chains are owned by Blackstone group. Formally the hotel was owned by the descendents of the Hilton family. The idea was formally initiated by Conrad Hilton. The ownership was through shareholding. Blackstone group bought the hotel chains in 2007.

6.0 Managing the Customer Life Cycle

The central strategy for the customer life cycle is the development of elaborate and cordial customer relationships. As a process CRM is a process and strategy that endears to learn the behavior and the needs of the customers in order to make good their relationship with the business. The hotel chains have developed an elaborate communication network for its customer.

The strategy has been enhanced further through well designed software that ensures that the customer concerns are dealt with forth with.

Any customer cycle consists of three levels. First, the business has to acquire new customers. The customers have to be maintained through the business cycle of life, through the customer relations enhancement stage. Finally the customer has to be retained altogether. CRM software is developed to streamline CRM activities at each of the three phases of customer relations management.

6.1 Customer Acquisition

The Hilton hotel chains have developed contact management brochure that are used in the direct marketing of the hotel. The brochure effectively market and promote the product. In addition, the hotel chains have developed elaborate software with leads that get the prospective visitor of the site to the next link sites. The modules developed help in speeding up the customer acquisition process and reduce the cost of customer acquisition.

            The chains have also acquired new customers through the database visiting. The database allows the hotel chains to identify customer prospective and send them some hotel profiles.

6.2 Customer Relationship Enhancements

The hotel chain’s CRM department has had its members undergo a stream of training to understand the behavior of its customer. The understanding of the behaviors of the customers leads to a proper understanding of their needs and desires. Subsequent, the provision of the established needs and desire lead to enhanced profitability. This happens particularly with the existing customers through cross-selling. Besides, based on the analysis from the CRM department services of the hotel and the goods are customized in accordance to their preference and needs.

6.3 Customer Retention

The acquired customer is of paramount importance than the customer that is yet to be acquired. The retention of the older customers of the hotel chains are therefore of prime import. The hotel chain places a lot of premium on this cadre of customers because the hotel chains believe these cadre of customer play an important role in their quest to getting new customers. Besides, if the acquired customers only replace the older customers, then the essence of the CRM department lacks in total. In addition, the long run effect would be that the hotel chains will be spending much on sales promotion.






The customer lifecycle is of primal importance to the Hilton hotel chains. The CRM department treats all the level of the chain with equal importance and zeal. This level will always depend on each other and neglecting any of the level dwells blow on the entire customer acquisition process.

Customers have also been retained through strategies of exceptional delight in them from the hotel chain workers. In additions, the hotel provides some added value by including some exceptional services to the services. Complementary products have been set aside for this purpose. This does not only add value but it also develops a social bond between the hotel workers and the customers. Subsequent, the trust of the customers is acquired through respectable response and timely ones.

7.0 Recommendations 

Though the hotel is performing relatively well there is sufficient room for the increased service delivery and increased income (Buttle, Francis, 2004). Given that the hotel is towing the right track, improvement of its service delivery would be attained through several policies.

7.1Customer acquisition

There is a widespread misconception the Hilton chain of hotels are a preserve of the affluent. The hotel has to embark on a sensitization campaign to demystify this attitude. Once this has been undertaken there will high prospects of acquiring new customer to the hotel. This will be done through advertisement through mass media and the internet. Face Book and the Orkut are also becoming effective communications and will be effectively utilized towards this end.



7.2 Customer Retention

The loyalty program is paying sufficient dividends for the hotel chains. Subsequent to this, the hotel should expand its loyalty program to bring several members on board. This is because the loyalty programs are in themselves a mode of sales promotion and a way of customer retention.

7.3 Increasing Low Income Cadre of Service

The Hilton hotel chains are apparently revered for the high quality and expensive services. However, given that the hotel endears to ultimately serve the community, the then there is direly needed to cater for the diversity in society. This would be achieved through the introduction of lower cadre hotel services that are relatively cheap yet with high quality and standards. This will also demystify the perception that the Hilton hotel chains are a preserve of the rich and the affluent in society.

7.4 Employee Welfare

The Hilton hotel chains have rewarded their employees relatively well. Nevertheless, the reward program would be expanded to ensure that all the staff is rewarded in a way. Most importantly annual increases in the chain workers salaries would go along way in ensuring that the works take an active role in the sales promotion prospects of the hotel chains.

7.5 Introduction of Sales Promotion through Cell Phone

The mobile technology is growing faster than any other technology, particularly in third world and developing countries.  This third world and developing countries have an equally robust niche for the hotel industry. The hotel would link up with subscribers to undertake elaborate customer acquisition programs. If the subscriber numbers offer any sufficient reason for adoption, then there is all reason to adopt this medium.

7.6 Three Year CRM Strategy

To increase the sales of the hotel chains, the hotel will develop a number of customer relations strategies over a period of three years.

  • The hotel chains will beef up its advertisement and marketing cost benefit analysis such as can be able to cut down on the marginal cost incurred in the advertisement process. The hotel chains will also try to measure the effectiveness of the CRM campaigns through an elaborate monitoring and evaluation process.
  • The hotel chains will also endeavor to increase its customer satisfaction through measures such as enhanced responsiveness through customer centered approach to response. The customers’ concern will be taken as the central theme of response by the CRM department.
  • The hotel chain will expand its loyalty program aimed at not only retaining the customers but also expanding their demand for the chains services and goods. The loyalty program will equally be fragmented into cadres to cater for the diverse income cadres of the hotel chains’ customers.
  • New services and product packages will be introduced to cater for the low income cadre of the customer. However, their income notwithstanding, the service and product quality of the hotel chains will remain above board.
  • The hotel projects to increase the retention rate of customers, and ultimately reduce the customer churn. In addition, it will proactively endeavor to retain the customers a little longer. Overall, the central objective will be to reduce the turnover of customers.
  • The hotel will projects its target towards increased customer self service. This will not be allowed to compromise the responsiveness of the staff towards the needs of customers. Subsequent, the accessibility of the CRM staff will be duly enhance, though with due diligence to reduce the cost of interaction per customer.
  • The promotional prospects of the hotel chains will be reviewed over and over to ensure that the process is more effective. Products and services will be developed based on the history of customers, their preferences and likely fashions and the customers’ interests and demands.
  • The hotel chain over the three year period will adopt elaborate customer centric approach to marketing. The CRM department will channel at least 40% of its efforts towards this course. This is projected to leverage the income by an estimated 25-30% increase in the overall income of the hotel chains.

7.0 Conclusion 

The Hilton hotel offers world class hotel facilities. The hotel has chains world over and there offer a reliable option for a hotel. The hotel also offer loyalty programs that can be accessed world over. Given the hotels linkage with international airlines, the hotel offers an effective and all round base for leisure venture. Summative the hotel is worth the cost as it offers quality for the customers’ money; one can count on the hotel for quality services and expended efficiency and efficacy.

It also needs to be appreciated that for the business to grow, the entire process of customer needs be interlinked in a somewhat progressive and harmonious manner. Lapses in the process will automatically cost the business. Where provisions are provided for the rewarding of the customers through their loyalty, it should be opened up to allow for transfer or subsequent redemption for other purposes. This will not only retain the customers but will also facilitate the acquisition of new customers alike.

The interaction of the service department and the customers is of equal and pertinent importance to the business. This interaction should therefore professionally and strategically undertake to meet the desired end. There ought to be no oversights and underestimation or overestimation. Ultimately, customer relation management is about interactions; very strategic interaction, that has due purpose.

Determining Perfect Position

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Leadership Styles

Leadership has been defined as the ability to influence others or affect the behaviors of others. There are a number of leadership styles that has been put forward to explain leadership. Leadership styles include autocratic, participative/democratic, and laissez-faire style.

In autocratic leadership, it is the leader who outlines what to be done and how it should be done. This leadership style may be effective incase where time is limited for achieving a certain goal but relevant information is available. In a well motivate organization; this style will be appropriate to solve such a problem. However being consistent in this leadership style, may consequently lead to abuse of the subjects. (William etal 2008)

Democratic leadership style allows for opinions from others, although it is the leader who outlines goals to be achieved. The leader seeks for approval of his ideas by the members of the team. Where relevant information is possessed both by the leader and the team members, this style is the most appropriate. Advantage with this type of leadership is that it encourages employees to work hard since they feel that they are implementing their decisions. However it is appropriate where there is enough time for decision making. (William etal 2008)

Lastly laissez-faire leadership style involves setting up goals but leaves decision making to the team members. Members can make changes as situation calls for. This style work best when dealing with a responsible and mature team members on whom the leaders has tested and approved to be accountable and perfect in handling issues at hand. However any mistake is attributed to the leader not the team member. Factors to consider when deciding on leadership style includes: time at hand and complexity of the task none of this style can be pointed to be the best style.  Employing a mix of all styles is appropriate while considering factors such as complexity of the task, time available, and the information and knowledge with the team one is leading. (William etal 2008)

The Perfect Position

I feel the best position to take is public relations manager. Since the company is restructuring and expanding, there is a need to employ my dominant style of leading others.

As a public relation manager I will have a great role to manage media and public relations, visitors’ services, communications of important issues about the firm to the public, and creating rapport with various entities such companies, and individuals. I will also ensure that stockholders are well informed about company’s activities through release of annual reports, and frequent release of media publications as situations calls for.  Other role will include coordinating communication between the company and press. (Eric etal 2006)

Strength of my leadership style

Self confidence; I have a strong self confidence in whatever I do and believe that every thing is possible whenever there is a will and effort. This will help in confidently clarifying the company’s information and eradicate any misconceptions and propaganda against the company to the public. I will also be able to influence the working of the team of public relation specialists who will be working in public relation department.

Charismatic; during my working years in the firm I have powerfully created my self image and naturally many workers are drawn to my ideas. This characteristic will help in influencing the public that our company is the best and create a good image about it.

Influence: I am able to influence many people’s opinions through convincing them about my ideas. As I will be supervising public relations specialists, this strength will help in influencing the team in ensuring good performance of the company public relation department and as a whole entity. (US department of Labor 2009)

Timeliness; from the experience at work with this company, I have been timely in making decision and offering opinions to the management and other workers. Being a public relation manager requires giving the media accurate fast and honest response which requires timeliness.

Informed: for a number of years I have worked in this company, I have gained a lot of knowledge about the market, company’ operation and all other factors that affect this company. This will enable me to give accurate and honest information about our company and also be able to make quick decisions. This strength is also very essential in evaluating how far advertising and promotion programs align with public relations efforts as well as serves as the eyes and ears of the senior management. Additionally, this will help me in observing and analyzing social, economic and political trends that in one way or another may affect company’s operations. Based on my analysis about this trend I, will be able to make necessary recommendations so as to enhance the company’s image (U.S. Department of labor 2009 p 31)


Individualistic: This is a feeling that I have the right opinion and I should lead as other follows. This may affect the performance of the public relations department. It is possible important opinion from the team members may be ignored.

Palestine Market Exchange

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The Palestine Security Exchange (PSE) or Al-Quds index is a vehicle created by the Palestinian people to enable them create and distribute wealth more easily and equitably among the population.  The exchange aims to facilitate and maximize the flow of long term investment capital into the Palestinian economy.  Just as is the case with other security exchanges world wide, the PSE is has experienced its highs and lows since it was incorporated in 1995.  It has on its part achieved considerable success in marshalling investment both for Palestinian companies and the Palestinian economy.


The Palestine Security Exchange has made great effort to promote Palestine as a great opportunity destination for investment.  Generally the regulatory and technical environment has been greatly improved making the bourse a viable investment destination in the Middle East.  Generally the PSE has worked hard at modernizing private sector companies moving way from family owned structure to limited companies. Over the years it has seen the number of traded securities grow to a high of 40 companies as of May 17th 2010 (Salama, 2010).

Having attained a high of 1314.52 on 4th December 2005, the stock exchange has seen the Al-Quds index fall to operate in the mid to low 500s over the year (Bloomberg, 2010).  For the past year the situation in Palestine has been made worse by the continued blockade of the settlement by Israelis and as such the region has experienced an overall negative growth.


Overall, the liquidity position in the PSE has greatly improved in the last decade, with trading volumes rising by 13% in 2008; they fell by 30% in 2009 in line with global trends. The great spike witnessed in 2005 was as a result of stability both political and economic experienced through the territories. Business flourished and in this year 5 companies joined the Palestine Security Market further expanding it.


(The Portland Trust, 2010)

Additionally, the value of shares traded fell b 58% in 2009.  This was reversal of the growth experienced in 2008 of 48% but however in line with global trends.  Generally after the great high of 2005, the index has generally experienced falling share trades in all by one year (2008).  The falling in the value of the shares was expected.  The market h ad experienced a dramatic and very sharp rise in the value of securities traded that the market had to go through a correction period.  It was also a period of profit taking by the traders. Additionally, in 2005, there was an election and a change of government.  This coupled with the rise to the second intafadha, had the combined result of having a negative economic growth.


(The Portland Trust, 2010)

Market capitalization rose consistently from 1997 to 2004 before experiencing the great leap in 2005.  After reaching the dizzying heights of $4.5 billion dollars, it gradually fell for the next three years before improving in 2009 despite the global financial crisis.  As at the end of 2009, market capitalization was at 2.4 billion US dollars.  A very impressive figure for an emerging market operating under very difficulty circumstances.  The fall in value of market capitalization was in line with the happenings within the Palestinian territories.  This was a manifestation of the share price correction that was happening within the bourse.  This was fall in capitalization was sustained thorough he following years as the political situation worsened and the blockade by the Israeli forces took a negative tool on the economy.


(The Portland Trust, 2010)

The future of the PSE looks rosy.  There are companies that are lined up for listing and the company that owns the exchange is itself positioned for listing within the year-2010.  This will greatly increase liquidity and the number of shares being traded within the bourse. As a result of the wider variety on offer, it should make the bourse rapid growth well grounded on strong fundamentals.


The Palestinian economy is a very fast growing economy.  It is forecast ed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that in 2010, the Palestinian Territories will witness economic growth reaching seven per cent with a very high possibility of reaching 10 per cent in the next three years (MENAFN 2010).  This for an economy operating in very difficult circumstances is very impressive and encouraging.  For an investor looking to invest, though risky, the returns to be gotten from the Palestinian territories are very impressive. The biggest returns are to gotten in the areas of construction both of houses and basic infrastructures.  Since the bourse is based in the West Bank cities of Nablus and Ramallah, it has been able to thrive as a result of benefiting from political stability and rapid economic growth in the two cities.

Cultural Awareness and Cultural Differences

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People belong to various backgrounds in terms of religion, beliefs, taste and preferences and civilization. This background affects type of demand offered by various people. Religious laws for instance, guide those who subscribe to them on their dressing code, the type of food to eat, and how they relate with each other. These backgrounds are so entrenched and inherent in people that any business entity which fails to comply with them is threatened to fail. Cultural differences affect operations and relationships in the business. (Robert etal 2007 p 4).

A good business manager should first establish needs of the customers and eventually profitably offer commodities to satisfy the customers’ needs. Cultural differences should be one of the considerations when opening a new business entity. In opening a sandwich shop concept like ‘Subway’ sandwich shop, cultural differences ranging from religious rules on diet, gender participation and perception as well as role of men and women may have a great effect on the business. Therefore, there is a need to accommodate these differences.

Strategies to accommodate cultural differences

Various cultures and religions have different dietary rules e.g. ‘halal’ rule in Islamic religion forbid consumption of pork, blood, animals which are not slaughtered in the name of Allah (God), carcass of dead animal, and intoxicants. Judaism is also against consumption of pork, blood, and meat from those animals which do not chew the cud. Some societies are also emphasizing on consumption of food derived from organic activities as opposed to those from modern technology. Additionally, people are growing more sensitive on health impact of what they eat from various sellers of food products. (Mian & Muhammad 2004 p 2-4)

First strategy is seeking knowledge and information about culture of the targeted customers. This may involve attending an ethnic studies course to understand, religious issues, ethics, beliefs and rituals of the targeted customers. This may also involve visiting different houses of worship so as to have knowledge about beliefs of different religions. Another strategy is visiting ethnic districts in the areas where the shops will be opened. This will provide information on how to treat various people from different cultures, understand their taste and preferences as well as business language. Reading ethnic magazines and newspaper will also provide more information about eating habits of certain group of people. (Michael etal 2008 p77-80)

Respecting all clients without biasness to cultural background should also be emphasized Customers are very sensitive on how they are treated especially when they are being served by a seller from different cultural background. To ensure this, I will train my employees on how to impartially treat customers from different cultures so as every customer may feel that is dealing with the right seller. This will be aimed at fostering positive relationship with my multicultural customers. Etiquette will be encouraged as well as treating the clients in a way they would like to be treated. (Michael etal 2008 73-74)

Another strategy is diversifying products offered in my shops. For instance, for clients who subscribe to ‘halal’ rule, offering chicken meat will be a good option. I will also ensure that my products are free from preservatives which some cultures do not encourage. My shops will employ people from different backgrounds whom I will rely on in ensuring that these shops serve the interests of different customers from different cultures.

The other strategy is to enhance relationships with suppliers who are ready to supply organically grown products. Based on this, I will be able to accommodate customers whom their culture do not encourage consumption of products which are grown using modern technology. This will help in creating good rapport with them and they will like to be associated with my shops.

Differences in gender perception, and role

In developing countries mostly in parts of Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe, society has not satisfactory recognized the importance of a woman as a key player in economic and leadership activities. This poses a cultural difference especially between these societies and those who has been brought up in societies where role of a woman is highly recognized and respected. Some of this society will not expect to be served by a woman in a business entity. To accommodate this I will not rule out employing women in my shops. However I will seek to employ both men and women. Shops situated in areas where women services in a business entity are unacceptable will be run by men only so as to ensure that they succeed.